THE PROSPECTS OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN BORJOMI - KHARAGAULI NATIONAL PARK
The Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park is one of the largest national parks not only in Georgia, but in Europe too. The park was endorsed and created with the support of the World Wildlife Fund and the German government in 1995 and was ofﬁcially inaugurated in 2001. In 2007 the park became a member of PAN (Protected Area Network). The particular uniqueness of the park, along with its location and climate, is the diversity of geographical and ecological zones. The park is famous for its beautiful landscapes, historical monuments and diverse ﬂ ora and fauna. The major part of the park is covered with coniferous and deciduous forests. At the border of western Georgia grew species characteristic to Colchic ﬂora. We monitored the process of secure touristic management in those parts of the park, which are mostly endangered by visitors. As it was ﬁnd out, according to existed standards, the optimal loading of places takes place in mid-mountain forest zone. The touristic-recreational capacity on one hectare of forested area in this zone is two visitor a day, in forestless places less. By theoretical calculations touristic-recreational loading on one hectare/an year is more than existing norms, but destructive adverse loading from visitors’side wasn’t observed. On contrary, such destructive actions was noticed from indigenous people, who use perspective touristic territories for agricultural purposes. In places mostly visited by tourists the reduction of rare forest species takes place. Еhe main principles of sustainable ecotourism development are not maintained and the administration of the park should undertake decisive measures to improve the situation.
1. Protected Area Categories. 15.01.2014. Available at: www.incn.org/pa categories.
2. Craig L. Shafer. Cautionary thoughts on IUCN Pro¬tected Area Management Categories 5-6 // Global Eco¬logy and Conservation, Vol. 3, January 2015, pp. 331-348.
. 3. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories. The Encyclopedia of Earth // Available at.www. eoearth.org.
1. Protected Areas in Quebec: a Pledge for the Future. Government Guidelines with a View to Adopting a Quebec Strategy, 2002,6 pp. Available at: www. Gove..qc. ca.
2. Martha Honey. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development // 2013, 568 pp.
3. Ecotourism and Green Travel. Untamed Path. 2015. 4 pp. Available at.: www. untamed path.com.
4. TIES Press Release. 07.01.2015, Available at: www.ecotourism.org/news.
5. Sustainable Еourism and Globalization. United Path, 2015, 8 pp. Available at: United path.com.
6. Statistical Publication // „Sakstat“, Tbilisi, 2014, pp.14-28 (in Georgian).
7. List of PAN Certiﬁed Parks // Available at: en. wikipedia. org.
8. Abashidze I. Dendrology // “Ganatleba“, Tbilisi, 1985, 315 pp. (in Georgian).
9. Gigauri G. Biodiversity of Forests of Georgia // “Pariteti”, Tbilisi, 2000, pp.160 (in Georgian).