Role of the Orthodox Church in Georgia’s European Integration Process
Keywords:European integration, Georgian Orthodox Church, Symphonia, Church-State Relations,
There is a dominant discourse in the Georgian society that Christianity makes Georgians European, although from the World Value Survey(1981-2015) by Inglehart &Weltzel, we see that it distancesthem from Europe. Political elites and representatives of GOC build their narratives on Georgia's belonging to the European-Christian family, thus it is interesting to reveal whether the church and the state overlap in their approaches to European integration and how it affects the foreign policyof the country. This paper explores the role of Georgian Orthodox Church in the ongoinginternal political affairs in Georgia, emphasizing a particular importance on influence of Georgian Orthodox Church on the process ofEuropean integration. The qualitative study results will be used in order to find out the role of Orthodox Church inGeorgia’s political discourse.
Batiashvili,N. (2018).The Bivocal Nation, Memory and Identity on the Edge of Empire. Palgrave Macmillan.
BBC (2018). Church protests halt Georgia cannabis law. 18 September 2018. Retrieved from:https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-45563477?fbclid=IwAR0asY2lVKB3MIP4Psleo_ZOHwbniPbhHJ8JiMM_FZBwqotptf9dcB9kKl0
Beacháin, D. &Coene, F. (2014). Go West: Georgia's European Identity and Its Role in Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy Objectives. Nationalities Papers, 42 (6),923-941, DOI: 10.1080/00905992.2014.953466 Retrieved from:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00905992.2014.953466?needAccess=true
Berger, P.L. (1999). The Desecularizationof the World: The Global Overview.Berger, P. L.(ed.) The Desecularizationof the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Civil.ge(May 18, 2013).Violence against Anti-homophobia Rally. Retrieved from: http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=26073
Civil.ge (April 28, 2014). Georgian Church Speaks Out Against Anti-discriminationBill. Retrieved from:http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=27175
Chitanava,E. &Noniashvili,G. (2014).Practice of Financing Religious Organizations by Central and Regional Government. Tolerance and Diversity Institute & Human Rights Education and Monitoring Center.Retrieved from:
CRRC (March 2016).NDI Public Opinion Poll,Retrieved From:http://caucasusbarometer.org/en/na2016ge/VOTECHUR/
CRRC (2017). Caucasus Barometer 2017 Georgia. Retrieved from:
Edilashvili, M. (2016).Georgia: Project Aims to Boost Orthodox Church’s Support for EU Integration. Retrieved from: http://www.eurasianet.org/node/77846
European Union External Action (2017).EU-Georgia RelationsFactsheet.Retrieved from:https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en/23634/EU-Georgia%20relations,%20factsheet
Government of Georgia(2000).National Security Concept of Georgia. Retrieved from:https://mod.gov.ge/uploads/2018/pdf/NSC-ENG.pdf
Gvalia, G.,Lebanidze, B. &Iasvhili, Z. (2011).Political Elites, Ideas and Foreign policy: Explaining and Understanding the International Behavior of Small State in the Former Soviet Union. Tbilisi: Ilia State University
Inglehart, R., C. Haerpfer, A. Moreno, C. Welzel, K. Kizilova, J. Diez-Medrano, M. Lagos, P. Norris, E. Ponarin& B. Puranen et al. (eds.). (2014).World Values Survey: Round Six.Madrid: JD Systems Institute. Retrieved from: www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV6.jsp.
International Republican Institute (April 2018). Public Opinion Survey: Residents of Georgia. Retrieved from: http://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/2018-5-29_georgia_poll_presentation.pdf
Jones, S.&Kakhishvili, L. (2013).The Interregnum: Georgian Foreign Policy from Independence to the Rose Revolution.Kakachia, K. &Cecire, M. (Eds.).Georgian Foreign Policy, The Quest for Sustainable Security.Tbilisi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Retrieved from:
Lorusso, M. (2013). Georgian Secularism between Modernizations and Democratization: Minority Issues and Social Cohesion. ISPIAnalysis, 174, 3-4.
Margvelashvili, K. (2016).Influence of Church: Political Processes and Election in Georgia (pp. 4-14).Gambashidze, N.(Ed.). Religion, Society and Politics in Georgia. Tbilisi: The Caucasus Institute for Peace and Development. (In Georgian)
Meyendorff, J. (1982). The Byzantine Legacy in the Orthodox Church. Crestwood, N.Y: St.Vladimir’s Seminary Press.
Nodia,G.(2013).Divergent Interests: What Can and CannotBe Achieved in Georgian-Russian Relations (pp. 97-110).Kakachia, K. &Cecire, M. (Ed.) Georgian Foreign Policy, The Quest for Sustainable Security.Tbilisi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
NDI(2018).Public Opinion Poll in Georgia. Retrieved from: https://www.ndi.org/sites/default/files/NDI_March_2018_Public%20Presentation_English_final.pdf
Netgazeti.ge (December 4, 2012).Money and State Property Given to Church.Retrieved from: http://netgazeti.ge/news/17953/
Netgazeti.ge(March 24, 2014). Police Arrested Civilians on the Rally Against NATO. Retrieved from: http://netgazeti.ge/news/30371/
Parliament of Georgia (1995).Constitution of Georgia. Retrieved from: http://www.parliament.ge/ge/kanonmdebloba/constitution-of-georgia-68
Parliament of Georgia (2002).Constitutional Agreement betweenState of Georgia andGeorgian Apostolic Autocephaly Orthodox Church. Retrieved from:https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/41626?publication=0
Papanikolaou, A. (2003). Byzantium, Orthodoxy and Democracy. Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 71 (1), 75-98. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1466304
Pravoslavie.ru (2014).Patriarch of Georgia Declares May 17 Day of Family Strength and Honor of Parents. Retrieved from: http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/70688.htm
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (2017). Georgian Archpriest Convicted of Planning to Poison Patriarch’s Aide. Retrieved from: https://www.rferl.org/a/georgia-priest-convicted-planning-kill-patriarch-secretary/28717886.html
Stark, R.&Finke, R.(2000).Acts of Faith. Explaining the Human Side of Religion. Los Angeles& London:University of California Berkeley Press.
Sabanadze, N. (2010). Globalization and Nationalism: The Case of Georgia and Basque Country.Budapest: Central European University Press. Retrieved from:https://books.openedition.org/ceup/556.
Tabula.ge (January24, 2013).Ilia the Second: Putin Will Do Everything in Order to Stay as Brothers.Retrieved from: http://www.tabula.ge/ge/story/63727-ilia-meore-putini-kvelafers-gaaketebs-imisatvis-rom-dzmebad-davrchet
Transparency International Georgia(2013).An Overview of Public Financing Provided to the Georgian Patriarchate.Retrieved from: