Main Article Content
Development of a solid house structures since the Neolithic period is evidenced in the South Caucasus by archaeological materials which indicate that the process was facilitated by the local relief and abundance and variety of building materials in this mountainous and forested region. Based on the discovered samples of the materials and genetic analysis the scholars confirmed material connections, including genetic connections of the Kartvelian ethnos that lived in the South Caucasus and its neighboring areas in the Neolithic era with the ancient civilizations of the peoples from the entire Middle East region.
Since the Kartvelian ethnos was able to preserve its ancient language up to these days, in addition to analyzing material connections, it is interesting also to focus on linguistic links that undoubtedly existed since the Neolithic period between the Georgian language and the languages of the ancient peoples of the region. For this purpose, the scholars analyzed the words related to the sun, mountains, water, shepherding, blacksmithing, agriculture, as well as toponyms, ethnonyms, and the names of the deities.
Identified linguistic phenomena revealed genetic or typological similarities of the Kartvelian languages with ProtoTigris and Proto-Euphratean languages, and in general with various ancient languages of the region.