Georgian Maritime Scientific Journal <p>Georgian Maritime Scientific Journal is issued by Batumi State Maritime Academy since 2021. The aim of the Journal is to publish and promote research works, articles, case studies and reviews focusing on all aspects of maritime sector and its role in sustainable development.</p> LEPL-Teaching University-Batumi State Maritime Academy en-US Georgian Maritime Scientific Journal 1512-4827 Employment of Georgian seafarers and prospects in the world labor market <p>Seafarer has been recognized as a key profession by world organisations, which means that seafarers play an important role in world socio-economic and other accompanying processes. Despite the efforts of the Council of Europe countries, the flow of European seafarers in the world maritime labor market is still declining. This article discusses the current state of qualifications of Georgian seafarers and the prospects for their employment on the basis of theoretical and practical results, research of current problems in the labor market and practical analysis of ways to solve them.</p> Irakli Sharabidze Mamuka Baramidze Ana Makharadze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 5 16 Problems of Distance Assessment of Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic at BSMA <p>Due to the restrictions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic situation, higher education institutions of Georgia, including Batumi State Maritime Academy, had to move to distance learning within a limited time frame. Remotely was carried out not only teaching (lectures and practical works) but assessment processes as well. The paper discusses the disadvantages of distance assessment based on a one-year survey (done by the authors of the given article), analyses the students’ mid-term and final assessment results before and during the pandemic period and suggests possible ways to eliminate them.</p> Abdul Kakhidze Avtandil Gegenava Eldar Mskhaladze Joni Babilodze Teimuraz Chokharadze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 17 27 Prospects of Georgia becoming EU member in context of economic development trends <p>In this article we discuss accession criteria for EU membership - the Copenhagen Criteria. We largely focus on and critically analyze Georgia’s the economic development level and modern trends. Using the recent data published by international, regional, and local institutions we analyzed macroeconomic measures and international rankings of EU countries and Georgia.<br>Based on qualitative and quantitative research approaches, we conclude that Georgia’s recent economic levels and economic development trends, unfortunately, don’t satisfy the Copenhagen economic criteria and it can be a delay factor for Georgia’s EU integration. In this paper, we present recommendations, a satisfaction of which will facilitate fulfillment of the Copenhagen Criteria by Georgia and speed up the process of Georgia joining the EU.</p> Roman Mamuladze Meri Gabaidze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 28 38 Challenges of the Modern Technical Translation and Maritime Education <p>Thirst for innovation and novelties is an integral part of establishment and development of the modern society, providing sharing of experience via effective communication means.</p> <p>Lightning-fast development of informational technologies of the XX century totally removed the existed boundaries and multicultural relations between the nations, informational exchange and share of consciousness is a common lifestyle of Euro Atlantic space.</p> <p>Translation is a major mediator for correct perception of information. In line with the rise of the volume of information, amount of new words, word combinations and/or phrases especially in marine technical fields, is constantly increasing.</p> <p>Thus, the aim of the presented paper is to detect peculiarities of maritime technical terminology with the purpose of its adequate translation provision and appropriate application within the frame of maritime education and training.</p> Tamila Mikeladze Svetlana Rodinadze Zurab Bezhanovi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 39 47 The Prospects of Using an Artificial Underwater Reef in the Maritime Water Area of Georgia <p>The article discusses the importance of using underwater artificial reefs, the current situation, and prospects. The use of underwater artificial reefs has different purposes, such as strengthening fishery resources, population growth of living organisms in the sea, hydrobiological reclamation, development of diving tourism, coastal reinforcement function, etc.</p> <p>The use of artificial reefs is discussed within the concept of the “Blue Economy”. Thus, the Black Sea "blue economy" goal is to preserve, protect, and reap the biodiversity of marine resources. The sea has not an unlimited resource and the anthropogenic factors can significantly reduce or increase the economic benefits of the sea. The prudent management of marine resources and the improvement of the ecological condition of the sea are extremely important for sustainable economic development.</p> <p>The work discusses the importance of artificial reefs for the ecosystem, the diversity of underwater flora and fauna, and the prospect of increasing its inhabitants. The study's goal is to study the economic effects of artificial reefs, their impact on the environment, durable and easily portable design layout for the depth of the sea. And, the aim is to run the production, placement of the artificial reefs at the coastal waters of Georgia, and promote the establishment of the initiative.</p> Guladi Tkhilaishvili Ketevan Tchanidze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 48 55 External Debt Growth Trends in Georgia <p>The article discusses the dynamics of foreign debt growth in Georgia. Relevant analysis is done by years. Conclusions are drawn in this regard. Problems caused by the increase of foreign debt and proposals for debt reduction are given.</p> Ledi Dzneladze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 56 64 Cruise Tourism in a Pandemic Reality: The End of the Industry or Not? <p>The following research work aims at analyzing coronavirus disease impact on cruise industry. The study provides a general overview of the sector before the crisis, as well as current Covid-19 pandemic situation and suggests possible post pandemic evolution of the industry.<br>The findings show that despite the biggest crisis in the sector, the business is too successful to go down and sink under the pressure of financial problems. Even bad publicity of cruises is going to be temporary. According to 2020 CLIA Report 82% of cruise travelers are likely to cruise again. The fact testifies to the high attractiveness of the cruises. Another ‘pro’ is a positive attitude tendency of society about cruising. [1].</p> Karina Melikjanyan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 65 73 Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing in the Georgian Consumer Market <p>In today's digital world, traditional marketing is increasingly being integrated with high technology and Internet resources. The digitalization of global and local markets has put on the agenda an overview of practical marketing mechanisms and the search for new approaches. Traditional marketing communication tools and channels such as advertising, direct marketing, promotion, personal selling, catalogs, etc. They are gradually integrated with Internet marketing trends and are used more or less in a comprehensive manner.<br>This article discusses the Social Media Marketing development stages, the key platforms, the tools used, and their impact on the consumer market. As with traditional marketing, the effectiveness of social media marketing is determined by the nature of consumer markets and their awareness of a particular marketing event. The article also discusses marketing trends used in the Georgian consumer market and customer reviews in the same market.</p> Ana Makharadze Gela Mamuladze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 74 86 The Study of Migration Influence on the Labor Market Structure and Employment in Georgia <p>The present work is aimed at the study of impact of migration on labor marker structure and employment. Migration is a complex, multifaceted and very painful issue for our country. There is two forms of the migration - internal and external, both with its own peculiarities, aims and results.Both may be discussed in positive and negative contents, but taking into account a small scale of population in Georgia, external migration has more negative than positive sides and threats on the sustainable demographic development of the country. To identify the internal migration impact, we have used the official statistic information from National Statistics Office of Georgia, also the research materials of the scientific-research grant projects and the Neoclassical theory of migration. We have discussed as well the impact of the external migration on the demographic development of the country and on the employment structure. There are given particulars of the different types of migrants, and the accent is made on Seafarers, specifically are seafarers migrants or not. Research in regard of the seafarers is made on basis of the information of Maritime Transport Agency of Georgia, according which is shown growth of the seafarers employment. Works of Georgian migration and demography researchers are used within the frame of the research.</p> Ketevan Tchanidze Irakli Katsadze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 87 96 Maritime Discourse in Diachronic Aspect <p>The work deals with the Georgian maritime discourse in different time ranges. It shows the impact of dominant languages on verbal communication of Georgian seafarers at different times and their trace not only in oral but in written languages.</p> <p>The research is connected to the very topical issue today, the purity of the Georgian language that is highly debatable among linguists. Language, language system, language policy is a complex phenomenon, study of which is inexhaustible and comprehensive. The work aims to depict the state of the Georgian maritime discourse, existing problems and to review the ways of solving them. Accordingly, it sets the following goals: to review the maritime discourse, identify barbarisms and neologisms, make a contrastive analysis of the examples found, present the impact of the globalization role.</p> <p>The synchronous and diachronic approaches used in the study reveal the influence of Russian and English on the Georgian maritime discourse. Nothing can stop the process of entering and establishing new lexical elements in a language. It is a continuous factor, but not all the words are capable of entering the base language, most of them disappear with time passage. Language in general has the ability to protect itself.</p> Sopiko Dumbadze Kristine Iakobidze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 97 104 Interdisciplinary Teaching of Natural Science Training Courses <p>Georgian sailors hold leading positions on the world market. Therefore, they need to be thoroughly trained and successfully integrated into international transport systems. The presented paper describes the introduction of interdisciplinary teaching, which is the basis for the success of the set goal. The introduction of this method of training will have a positive impact on the process of acquiring professional knowledge of a sailor and the formation of his personal qualities. It is well known that understanding most of the issues related to a sailor’s professional activity is based on knowledge of the laws and theories of natural sciences, elements of higher mathematics, digital technologies, the use of alternative energy, environmental safety and others. The acquired knowledge should be used by the student both in the educational process and in future professional activities. The model of interdisciplinary training of sailor training allows to achieve the professional competencies that are formed in the student in the process of learning and training. Competence is the ability of a sailor to apply in practice the knowledge gained in the learning process and properly formed skills.</p> Mzia Diasamidze Irma Takidze Ana Shotadze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 105 110 The Use of Wind Turbines in Ports and Sea Vessels <p>The technical result of the research of presented wind turbine is simplification and rise of the practical application of its main body – the rotor construction, which shall be achieved via transformation of wind shifting movement into rotating movement is implemented by rotor blades, which present bent or inclined shape plates and during rotation, these plates are not influenced with decelerating resistance of surrounding air.<br>The technical novelty of the turbine construction is presented with the following features: each profile blade of the rotor presents concave arc placed eccentrically towards its rotative axis, and the rotor may be equipped with one, two or more wings.</p> Tsiuri Kurshubadze Makvala Bekirishvili Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 111 116 Importance of GHS in Seafarers Education <p>Global harmonized system (GHS), relating to hazard chemicals, is a process of making regulations among countries uniform to the extent possible so as to benefit an industry to export its product to several countries with one communication system.</p> <p>On one side, the system is helpful to develop communication as labeling and material safety data sheets, and on the other side is helpful for personal in the industry (including manufacturer, chemical carrier, Ports, Terminals, Ships, laboratories) to properly handle chemicals with covering all safety rules.</p> <p>Such international guidelines are believed to be the most reliable information so that USERS of hazard chemicals is confident enough in handling, storage, segregation, disposal and using.</p> <p>The current article has two goals. Firstly, is to extend the awareness and understanding the main principles of GHS system, their guidelines, and how the hazard chemicals are being classified, communicated as labels, symbols, pictograms, hazardous / precautionary statements and material safety data sheets. Secondly, is to establish the importance of implementing of GHS in curricular of bachelor students of maritime specialization, significance of increasing their awareness, knowledge and understanding in hazardous communication and understanding of hazard identification and risk management of different cargos, which is the part of ISM code and MSC 286(86) requirements.</p> Nino Kurshubadze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 117 130 Some Trends in the Development of Maritime Industry in the World and in Georgia <p>The paper "Some Trends in the Development of Maritime Industry in the World and in Georgia" substantiates the place and role of international maritime industry in both the world economy and the economic development of the country. The special importance of maritime transport-logistics systems is emphasized in the further development of the Georgian economy. The abstract conclusions are based on the research and data analysis published by national and international institutions on world economy, international trade of goods as well as international maritime trade, and their interrelationships. Trends in the development of some areas of the maritime industry (international maritime trade, world navy, shipbuilding and training of seafarers) have been studied. Based on the analysis of similar indicators of the Georgian maritime industry, separate conclusions have been made about the further development and efficient use of the Georgian maritime transport-logistics system.</p> Roman Mamuladze Meri Gabaidze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 131 139 Detection a Natural Source of Oil in the South-Eastern Part of Black Sea During Monitoring of Oil Pollution With on European Maritime Safety Agency Satellite Service <p>The paper deals the presence of a natural source of oil, which is sometimes detected in the southeastern part of the Black Sea as part of the monitoring of oil pollution of the Black Sea using the EMSA (European Maritime Safety Agency) satellite service.</p> <p>With the collaboration of EMSA CLEANSEANET System and MRCC (Maritime Rescue Coordination Center) of Maritime Agency of Georgia MRCC is regularly receiving data to region possible spills pollution.</p> <p>The EMSA satellite service offers extensive surveillance of European waters for oil spills by using radar images acquired by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors on polar orbiting satellites. SAR sensors have the capability to detect oil slicks on the sea surface in darkness as well as daylight hours and to see through clouds.</p> <p>The analysis CleanSeaNet Alert Report possible spills, it's safe to say that we are observing a natural expression of oil on the sea surface, which is formed by the migration of oil hydrocarbons in the sedimentary complex of the southeastern part of the Black Sea, seaward of the city of Poti (Georgia). Source identified based on the analysis of multi-temporal radar satellite imagery.</p> Avtandil Gegenava Abdul Kakhidze Tinatin Gegenava Teimuraz Chokharadze Joni Babilodze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 140 155 Professional Training for Involvement in Maritime Education <p>The article is devoted to the issues of involvement of teachers and maritime professionals in maritime education. In particular, authors discuss professional training for basic subject teachers in order to become experts in teaching e.g. Ships Stability, MARPOL, and Environmental Pollution etc.</p> <p>The higher education institutions have specific qualification requirements for their academic staff members. This also applies to maritime lecturers who in addition need an appropriate sea experience as well as sufficient knowledge of related subject(s). Maritime professionals need to pass special trainings on order to get permission to deliver lectures in Maritime Academy. The authors make an attempt to analyze the possibility of passing professional training for those who are not involved in Maritime field and get special expertise to become specialist of profile subjects.</p> Irakli Sharabidze Natia Dolidze Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 156 161 Modern vision in the use of liquid cargo operation simulators <p>The cargo operation planning, the process of implementation is one of the most difficult tasks carried out on liquid cargo vessels. The chief officer’s task is to process a huge amount of information, accurately enter data into a special computer, consistently calculate the stages of the work, and finally the most important is to complete the task in the shortest period of time. In the implementation, less attention is paid to the economic use of cargo mechanisms, their wear, and fuel costs.</p> <p>Despite the recommendations and strategies for the effective management of cargo operations, modern artificial intelligence has not yet fully replaced the mankind. We offer a modern and effective way to solve problems, such as maritime universities and maritime training center simulator classes’ students will search the most effective ways of cargo operation. The collaboration among vessel, university and terminal would be distance in the internet cloud, which provides: the ships’ crew work schedule reduction, a wide choice of cargo operations plans, selection of the optimal option, energy-saving, only target use of mechanisms, which finally lead to less wear and tear, fuel economy and, consequently reduction of CO2 pollution in the atmosphere. It will also reduce cargo operation time, thus reducing port and terminal fees. More over this principle of operation will increase the number of qualified personnel in the future and will be used in the future for remote control liquid cargo operations on unmanned vessels of future.</p> Alexander Tsetskhladze Kristine Zarbazoia Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 1 1 162 169