Traditional Branches and Farming in Khelvachauri Municipality
Keywords:Agricultural Life, Fields of Agriculture, Traditions of Farming
The paper studies and analyzes various written data and field ethnographic materials on traditions of farming spread over Khelvachauri municipality, which has an ancient history of origin and development. Specifically, the work describes the folk agro technical rules of cultivation (grain, millet, barley, rye, bread) existing before and after corn cultivation (2 nd half of the nineteenth century). The work focuses on endemic breads characterization such as (makhas) spread in the Machakheli valley, and it concludes that Adjara should be considered as one of the local endemic bread breeding site in western Georgia, that was not known earlier.
According to Sarpi and Gonio ethnographic data, these micro-regions have been distinguished for their care of dry (terrestrial) and wet (marsh) rice. In addition to domestic consumption, rice was also a subject of foreign trade.
The work deals with the establishment of the maize culture and its prevailing agricultural culture (2nd half of the nineteenth century), as well as the care and cultivation of horticulture and tobacco. It has been pointed out that the tobacco culture has been particularly popular during the period of collectivization and has become one of the main sources of family income. This branch was spread only in two villages of Adjara Minaret and Kirnati Sakrebulo. In other municipal councils, mainly gardening and citrus cultivation were followed.
The work also deals with viticulture and fruit growing. Vine and orchard varieties, viticulture and winemaking, wine cellars and their local distribution hubs (upper Chkhutuneti, Cindyeti, Kirnaiti, Kapnistavi, Jocho, Ortabatumi) are described. In the wine cellars only the high grapes were crushed and stored. Lowland vine varieties have been widespread in the municipality since the late 30's and are still extensively developed.
In the last part of the paper we study cattle breeding and beekeeping. It also discusses the structures, labor tools, forms of labor organization, and customs associated with the listed industries. Illustrative material is attached to the work.