Linguistic Analysis of Sarp Speech


  • Omar Memishishi Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University Niko Berdzenishvili Institute, Department of Dialectology and Emigrant Literature Research


Georgian Literary Language, Sarp, Linguistic Analysis


In Sarpi speech, as in the other Laz language moods and sayings, five vowels are realized: a, e, i, o, u. They are opposed to each other in terms of local order, tune, and disagreement according to their labial or non-labial pronunciation.

Vocal and palate ჲ creates ascending diphthong: [ჲi, ჲe, ჲo, ჲu]. Descending diphthong is rare in speech. The ascending diphthongization also includes the [r]-phoneme: [r> ჲ (ren> „ჲen)].

Sarpi speech repeats the system of consonants of the Laz language, but, unlike other dialects, retains the sound [ყ],however, the sound [ყ] following the root consonant cannot stay in all Lazian dialects, the combinations [t͡ʃʼqʼ, t͡sʼqʼ, tʼqʼ] are replaced with [t͡ʃʼkʼ, t͡sʼkʼ, tʼkʼ] . The sound[r] is lost in the intervocal position. The speech at the same time retains the sound[f] in the words coming from the Greek and Turkish languages. In the speech of the young, [f] is replaced by [pʰ].

Phonetic phenomena occur in speech: assimilation of vowels and consonants, dissimilation of sound development,pleophonicsounds, metathesis ...

In Sarp dialect a noun is modified with all seven cases with their case signs and case postpositions. The sign of case and number is also attached to the verb.The case forms of the verb are used with the participle function. For the plural noun, the [ epʰ] and [-epʰe] morpheme are used.

From the pronoun groupthere ara personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative and interrogative-possessive pronouns.

Morphological affixes are not used to produce comparative degree in the Sarp version of the Laz language.The comparative degree is conveyed with the lexical peculiarities. A comparable subject contradicts the comparator one, and we have descriptive production. Morphological affixes are used to produce equal comparison.

Compound numeric names in speech are represented by conjunctions and nonconjunctional units.

The markers of the first subjective person pf the verb are v, b, pʰ, m; and signs of objective person are m, g. There are three tenses and four mood. The case of subject and object depends on the transitive ond intransitive verbs and verb tenses, Aspect is produced by preverbs. The preverbs also produce relation and tense. Thefuture tense is formed by preverbs as well as be auxiliary verbs. The passive voice has its own means of formation. Passives combine the functions of potential, and ability. Speech distinguishes subjective, objective, and neutralcategories of verbs. The verb is conjugated by the series which in their turn contain rows. The suppletive verb system shows a pattern of peculiar verb conjugation similar to Georgian. The paper deals with issues related to participle, verb affixes, conjunctions, particles, derived noun groups and attribute-attributed pairs.